Furan Synthesis

Furan Synthesis: Furan was first reported by Heinrich Limpricht in 1870. It is a colorless, inflammable, volatile, liquid with a boiling point of 31-32°C. The numbering and structures of furans are as follows:

Furan Chemical Synthesis


1. The vapor phase decarboxylation of furfural in the presence of palladium and charcoal gives furan.

Furan Synthesis

2. 1,3-Butadiene can be converted to furan by copper-catalyzed oxidation.

Furan Synthesis

3. Paal-Knorr Synthesis: Under non-aqueous acidic conditions, 1, 4 – diketones undergo cyclization followed by dehydration to give furans.

Fiest-Benary Synthesis

4. Fiest-Benary Synthesis: It is a condensation reaction between an α – halo ketone with a β – keto ester (or a β – diketone) in the presence of a base like ammonia or pyridine.

Furan Synthesis

5. Allenyl ketones undergo cyclization in the presence of silver nitrate or silver boron tetrafluoride in CH3CN to give furans.

Furan Synthesis

6. Ring expansion: Alkynic oxiranes when treated with sulfuric acid and mercury sulfate, undergo ring expansion to produce furans.

Ring expansion

7. From other heterocycles: Oxazoles undergo Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction with acetylenic dienophiles. The resulting product provides furan upon loss of nitrile.

From other heterocycles

8. From Ring contraction: Oxidative ring contraction of pyrylium salts with aqueous hydrogen peroxide and perchloric acid leads to the formation of 2-acylfurans.

From Ring contraction
Make sure you also check our other amazing Article on : Pyrrole Chemical Reactions
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