# Reactions of anthracene

Due to its less aromaticity than benzene, anthracene of reaction give both electrophilic substitution and addition reactions and these reactions occur at position 9 or 10 since the carbocations produced due to the attack of an electrophile on position 9 or 10 are the most stable since aromatic sextet is preserved in two of the three rings.

## Electrophilic substitution reactions:

Halogenation

Nitration: Anthracene on nitration with aqueous nitric acid undergoes oxidation to form anthraquinone but with nitric acid in acetic acid at 15-20° C gives a mixture of 9-nitroanthracene and 9,10-dinitroanthracene

Friedel-Craft reaction: Friedel-Craft reaction occurs at 9- position in non-polar solvent but in presence of polar solvent it occurs at 1-position.

Sulphonation: Anthracene can be easily sulphonated to give a mixture of 1- and 2- sulphonic acids.

Formylation (Vilsmeier reaction): Anthracene can be formylated at 9-position when heated at 120 °C with N-methylformanilide in presence of POCl3.

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